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Calcite is not an element. It is a mineral which is made up of the elements calcium, carbon, and oxygen.. In chemistry it is known as the compound calcium carbonate, CaCO3
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Today, coppers uses have expanded to include heating, cooling and refrigeration, electrical wiring, electronics, power generation and transmission, automotive applications, antimicrobial uses and many more.
The element Copper is found in a variety of minerals in the earths crust. Its uses are many. On the periodic chart of elements it is identified by the symbol Cu.
Copper ore is extracted using two basic methods of mining - open pit or underground mining.
The first step in processing the ore removed from the mine is to break the large rocks of ore into smaller pieces. This is accomplished by a variety of subsequent processing steps.
The next step in processing is called beneficiation. This is the first step in concentrating the copper into a more useable form.
The next step in the process flow is smelting for sulfide ore concentrate and solvent extraction for oxide ore leach solution.
Copper from the smelter is melted and cast as anodes, the solution from the solvent extraction process moves to a plating operation.
The final step in processing sulfide ore copper from the smelter is to make high purity copper cathodes.
Copper processing is a complex process that involves many steps as the manufacturer processes the ore from its raw, mined state into a purified form for use in many industries. Copper is typically extracted from oxide and sulfide ores that contain between 0.5 and 2.0 copper.
The refining techniques employed by copper producers depend on the ore type, as well as other economic and environmental factors. Currently, about 80 of global copper production is extracted from sulfide sources.
Regardless of the ore type, mined copper ore must first be concentrated to remove gangue or unwanted materials embedded in the ore. The first step in this process is crushing and powdering ore in a ball or rod mill.
Virtually all sulfide-type copper ores, including chalcocite Cu2S, chalcopyrite CuFeS2 and covellite CuS, are treated by smelting. After crushing the ore to a fine powder, it is concentrated by froth flotation, which requires mixing the powdered ore with reagents that combine with the copper to make it hydrophobic. The mixture is then bathed in water along with a foaming agent, which encourages frothing.
Jets of air are shot up through the water forming bubbles that float the water repellent copper particles to the surface. The froth, which contains about 30 copper, 27 iron and 33 sulfur, is skimmed off and taken for roasting.
If economical, lesser impurities that may be present in the ore, such as molybdenum, lead, gold, and silver, can also be processed and removed at this time through selective flotation. At temperatures between 932-1292F 500-700C, much of the sulfur content remaining is burned off as sulfide gas, resulting in a calcine mix of copper oxides and sulfides.
Fluxes are added to the calcine copper, which is now about 60 pure before it is heated again, this time to 2192F 1200CC. At this temperature, the silica and limestone fluxes combine with unwanted compounds, such as ferrous oxide, and bring them to the surface to be removed as slag. The remaining mixture is a molten copper sulfide referred to as matte.
The next step in the refining process is to oxidize liquid matte in order to remove iron to burn off sulfide content as sulfur dioxide. The result is 97-99, blister copper. The term blister copper comes from the bubbles produced by sulfur dioxide on the surface of the copper.
In order to produce market-grade copper cathodes, blister copper must first be cast into anodes and treated electrolytically. Immersed in a tank of copper sulfate and sulphuric acid, along with a pure copper cathode starter sheet, the blister copper becomes the anode in a galvanic cell. Stainless steel cathode blanks are also used at some refineries, such as Rio Tinto39s Kennecott Copper Mine in Utah.
As a current is introduced, copper ions begin to migrate to the cathode, or starter sheet, forming 99.9-99.99 pure copper cathodes.
Dec 19, 2016nbsp018332Copper has an important role in a number of functions, including the production of red blood cells regulation of heart rate and blood pressure
Coppers widespread usage began during the Copper Age, from 3500 to 2300 BCE. The metal was initially used exclusively in its pure state but was later used in the production of other metal alloys.
Copper oxide ore dressing production processing line. Copper Mining and Processing Processing of Copper Ores. Copper processing is a complicated process that begins with mining of the ore less than 1 copper and ends with sheets of 99.99 pure copper called cathodes, which will ultimately be made into products for everyday use.The most ...
The study was focused on different metal oxide particles CuO, TiO2, ZnO, CuZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, Fe2O3, and the toxicity was compared to that of carbon nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes MWCNT. The human lung epithelial cell line A549 was exposed to the particles, and cytotoxicity was analyzed using trypan blue staining.
Process for the Electrolytic Refining of CopperRaw materialBlister CopperIt is extracted from copper mine in smelting furnace, contains 98.5 copper. It is the raw material of electrolytic copper production. While the final electrolytic copper product contains 99.99 copper in it.