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2019-6-2 · 4. Investigate the equipment and facilities you might need to start a metal recycling site. For example, gold recyclers might have their own smelting operation or may simply receive the scrap gold ...
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2019-5-30 · QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS No. 10 WEDNESDAY 13 APRIL 1994 _____ [The Questions and Answers Paper published for the first sitting day in each week will contain, by number and title, all unanswered questions, together with questions to which answers have been received on the previous sitting and any new questions.
a newalternative for recycling EAFdust and other steel wastes, Kawasaki Steel Corporation has developed a new coal-based ironmaking technology, the Hi-QIP High Quality lron Pebble process. This process has slmple and inexpensive facilities and produces high quality reduced iron. Whenused in processing steel wastes, the process also makesit possible to completely recycle the wastes.
Above the cohesive zone, the gas heats up the burden. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen reduce iron oxide indirectly as gassolid reactions
HIsarna is a new coal-based ironmaking process offering both economical and environmental benefits The environmental benefits include a 20 reduction of CO 2 emissions without CCSCCU 80 90 CO 2 reduction with CCSCCU Experimental results of the plant in IJmuiden have confirmed the High energy efficiency
The PSH process uses nonmetallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking byproduct oxides to direct reduced iron DRI pellets. In this process
These reactions diminish when gas temperature falls below 900C. Reduction reactions, increasing in CO2 content and cooling of the gas continue along with its ascending. The remaining heat content of the gas is used to dry and preheat the burden before the gas leaves the furnace top at 100300C. The top gas is still a valuable fuel having a lower heating value of 34MJNm3.
For burden materials, the first step after they have been charged is drying. The next steps are rapid preheating and start of reduction of iron oxides. Following reactions take place below 570C
May 01, 2014nbsp018332The subsections below describe the following alternative ironmaking processes that reduce energy use and carbon emissions the COREX process, the FINEX process, Tecnored, ITmk3, the paired straight hearth furnace, the coal-based HYL process, the coal-based MIDREX process, 2 molten oxide electrolysis, suspension hydrogen reduction, fine ore reduction in a circulating fluidized bed, charging carbon composite agglomerates, use of biomass and waste oxides
Regardless of the ironmaking process, sulfur and phosphorus are generally undesirable elements in any raw material, since they can make the final steel product brittle and weak. Often limestone CaCO3 or dolomite CaMgCO32 is added with the feed to an RK and mixed with iron ore concentrate to act as a desulfurizing agent. The specification for sulfur in RK-grade coal in India is a maximum of 1 38. The maximum moisture content allowed in the same coals is 7.
May 17, 2017nbsp018332The process is a new coal-based process to produce high quality iron. The process is similar to ITmk3 process since it enables the melting of reduced iron in the rotary hearth furnace. The process permits fluctuation of mixing of raw material. Development has
HIsmelt was originally started by CRA now Rio Tinto in 1980s in a 2 tph pilot plant at Maxhutte, Germany followed by 8 tph pilot plant in Kwinana, Western Australia in the 1990s. Later in the first decade of present century, a commercial plant of 80 tph60,000 tons per annum was commissioned and operated at Kwinana. This plant has since been closed down due to several reasons. However the core process worked well and a lot of experienced was gained when the process was scaled up.
HIsarna process is carried out in a smelting vessel Fig 1 which is a combination of CCF and SRV. The process basically involves two stage counter current contact between IOF and the process gas. In both stages the operating temperature is above melting temperature. In stage 1, molten partly reduced ore is produced which runs downwards from the CCF into the SRV. The two stages are highly integrated in physical sense and both the process stages are carried out in a single smelting vessel.Fig 1 HIsarna smelting vessel and two stage concept
HIsarna process consists of a reactor in which IOF is injected at the top. The ore is liquefied in a high-temperature cyclone and drips to the bottom of the reactor where powder coal is injected. The powder coal reacts with the molten ore to produce liquid iron which is the base material to produce high quality steel. The gases that leave the HIsarna reactor are concentrated CO2.
Second campaign has run from 17 October to 4 December 2012.The objective of producing liquid iron for a longer, sustained periodwas achieved. Production at 80 of design capacity was achieved for periods of 8 to 12 hours. In the last run, full design capacity of 8 tph was reached.
The third campaign has run from 28 May to 28 June 2013. The objective of producing liquid iron for sustained periods and running tests with various kinds of raw materialswas achieved. For the first time,steel was made from HIsarna liquid iron.
The fourth campaign has run from 13 May to 29 June 2014. The objective of sustained, stable production during several days on end and tests of various kinds of raw materialswas achieved.
Before the start of each testing campaign burners preheat the reactor of the HIsarna plant to a temperature of about 1,200 deg C. Next, a layer of liquid iron is poured into the bottom of the melting vessel, to facilitate the start-up of the process.
Aug 07, 2017nbsp018332The project goal is to develop an entirely new transformational process for alternate ironmaking based on the direct gaseous reduction of iron-oxide concentrates in a flash-reduction process. The ultimate objective is to significantly increase energy productivity and reduce environmental emissions, especially CO 2 , versus the conventional blast-furnace ironmaking route.
20 savings in primary energy consumption 20 reduction of CO2 emissions without CCS CO2 capture and storage in geological formations Well suited for CO2 storage Nitrogen free off gas 80 reduction of CO2 emissions with CCS 60 t0 80reductions in other emissions dust, NOx, SOx, CO There is possibility of biomass There is increased flexibility of raw material usage Ores with substantial P, Zn, alkalis and S content can be used Possibilities exist for using steam coals and high ash coals Lower investment and operational costs
Apr 24, 2013nbsp018332In New Zealand, the coking coal occurs on the west coast of the south island. The bitumen in the coal binds it into lumps in a coke oven. Coking coal is higher in carbon content than cheaper coals and lignite which are used in power stations and industrial boilers. New Zealands Glenbrook Steel plant uses a different process.
INTRODUCTION. Coal based direct reduction processes are the alternative ways of iron and steel making. The necessity of the new processes are due to expensive coke, abundant availability of the fine ore and large energy consumption in blast furnace process causing a high burden on the environment.
Semi-coke generated in the coal-based direct reduction process of iron ore is a solid waste and its effective utilisation has not been developed so far. In order to develop it properly, the characteristics of this semi-coke have been comprehensively studied and an investigation was carried out into the use of semi-coke as an alternative fuel in iron ore sintering.
MANUFACTURING PROCESS Coal based Direct reduction process is classified based on the reducing agent namely solid. Most solid reduction process use non-coking coal as reducing agent due to abundantly available non-coking coal. The process proposed to be adopted is the rotary kiln proposes using Non-coking coal and iron ore.
urnace has dominated the ironmaking process since the 1980s. Environmental regulations are causing a significant decline of the BF method of making iron. Although still the base source of virgin iron, new blast furnaces have not been built in the U.S. in